Design of Experiments for Optimizing Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Plant-Based Sources

Luis Miguel Anaya-Esparza, Edward F. Aurora-Vigo, Zuamí Villagrán, Ernesto Rodríguez-Lafitte, José Martín Ruvalcaba-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Solano-Cornejo, Victor Manuel Zamora-Gasga, Efigenia Montalvo-González, Horacio Gómez-Rodríguez, César Eduardo Aceves-Aldrete, Napoleón González-Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Plant-based materials are an important source of bioactive compounds (BC) with interesting industrial applications. Therefore, adequate experimental strategies for maximizing their recovery yield are required. Among all procedures for extracting BC (maceration, Soxhlet, hydro-distillation, pulsed-electric field, enzyme, microwave, high hydrostatic pressure, and supercritical fluids), the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) highlighted as an advanced, cost-efficient, eco-friendly, and sustainable alternative for recovering BC (polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) from plant sources with higher yields. However, the UAE efficiency is influenced by several factors, including operational variables and extraction process (frequency, amplitude, ultrasonic power, pulse cycle, type of solvent, extraction time, solvent-to-solid ratio, pH, particle size, and temperature) that exert an impact on the molecular structures of targeted molecules, leading to variations in their biological properties. In this context, a diverse design of experiments (DOEs), including full or fractional factorial, Plackett–Burman, Box-Behnken, Central composite, Taguchi, Mixture, D-optimal, and Doehlert have been investigated alone and in combination to optimize the UAE of BC from plant-based materials, using the response surface methodology and mathematical models in a simple or multi-factorial/multi-response approach. The present review summarizes the advantages and limitations of the most common DOEs investigated to optimize the UAE of bioactive compounds from plant-based materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7752
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • DOE
  • desirability function
  • green extraction
  • mathematical models
  • phenolic compounds
  • phytochemicals
  • ultrasound


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