Important pre-Inca civilizations, known by their great political and religious structures, inhabited the northern coast of Peru. Archeological and anthropological studies have shown that people from these villages have hierarchical strata, but the genetic structure has been poorly studied. Here, we aimed to perform a molecular characterization of the Amerindian maternal lineages and the amelogenin gene in skeletons collected from three archeological sites in Lambayeque. Ancient DNA (aDNA) samples were analyzed with conventional PCR to assess the nine-base pair (9 bp) deletion corresponding to mitochondrial haplogroup B and the identification of haplogroups A, C, and D were obtained with PCR-RFLP experiments. The sex was characterized via amplification of the AMEL(X/Y) locus. Haplogroup frequencies were compared with available data from other ancient and modern civilizations from the Peruvian coast and highlands using statistical methods. Our results showed that haplogroup C had the highest frequency, while haplogroup B showed variable diversity in the analyzed populations. The meta-analysis revealed a positive correlation among some coastal villages. We concluded that ancient populations analyzed in our study showed the presence of four Amerindian mitochondrial haplogroups, which is consistent with previous studies.
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- AMEL (X/Y) locus
- Amerindian haplogroup
- Ancient DNA